Download Basic Electricity By Van Valkenburgh free pdf, Download Basic Electricity By Van. Valkenburgh Pdf, Read Online Basic Electricity By Van. basic electronics by VAN VALKENBURGH,. NOOGER & NEVILLE, INC. VOL. 1. INTRODUCTION TO WHAT A POWER SUPPLY IS. FILTERS, VOLTAGE. Basic Electricity – Van Valkenburgh – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Basic intro to Electricity.
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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. This book or parts thereof may not be reproduced in any form or in any language without permission of the copyright owner. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. This educational program has been an unqualified success.
Since April,when it was first installed, over 25, Navy trainees have benefited by this instruc- tion and the results have been outstanding. The unique simplification of an ordinarily complex subject, the exceptional clarity of illustrations and text, and the plan of pre- senting one basic concept at a time, without involving complicated mathematics, all combine in making this course a better and valkenburbh way to teach and learn basic electricity and electriciy.
The Basic Electronics portion of this course will be available as a separate series of volumes. In releasing this material to the general public, the Navy hopes valkenbjrgh provide the means for creating a nation-wide pool of pre-trained technicians, upon whom the Armed Forces could call in time of national emergency, without the need for precious weeks and months of schooling.
The electron theory not only is the basis of design for all electrical and electronic equipment, it explains chemical action and allows chemists to predict and make new chemicals, such as the synthetic “wonder drugs.
All electrical and electronic equipment has been designed using the electron theory. Since the electron theory has always worked for everyone, it will always work for you. Your entire study of electricity will be based upon the electron theory.
The electron theory assumes that all electrical and electronic effects are due electricify the movement of electrons from place to place or that there are too many or too few electrons in a particular place. Before working with electricity, you will want to know exactly what an electron is and what causes it to move in a material. In order for electrons to move, some form of energy must be converted into electricity.
Six forms of en- ergy can be used and each may be considered to be a separate source of electricity. However, before studying the kinds of energy which can cause an electron to move, you first must find out what an electron is. Because the electron is one part of an atom, you will need to know something about the atomic structure va,kenburgh matter.
You can find out about the electron by carefully ex- amining the composition of any ordinary material— say a drop of water. If you take this drop of water and divide it into two drops, divide one of these two drops into two smaller drops and repeat this process a few thou- sand times, you will have a very tiny drop of water.
This tiny drop will be so small that you will need the best microscope made today in order to see it. Imagine that you have available a super microscope which will magnify many times as much as any microscope presently existing. This microscope can give you any magnification you want, so you can put your tiny drop of water under it and proceed to divide it into smaller and smaller droplets. As the droplet of water is divided into smaller and smaller droplets, these tiny droplets will still have all the chemical characteristics of water.
However, you eventually will have a droplet so small that any further division will cause it to lose the chemical characteristics of water. This last bit of water is called a “molecule. These tiny structures are called “atoms. When two atoms of hydrogen combine with one atom of oxygen, you have a molecule of water. Cellu- lose molecules, the basic molecules of which wood is made, consist of three different kinds of atoms— carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
All materials are made up of different combinations of atoms to form molecules of the materials. There are only about different kinds of atoms and these are known as elements: The human body with all its complex tissues, bones, teeth, etc. Increase the magnification of your imaginery super microscope still further and exam- ine one of the atoms you find in the water molecule.
Pick out the smallest atom you can see — the hydrogen atom — and examine it closely. You see that the hydrogen atom is like a sun with one planet spinning around it. The planet is known as an “electron” and the sun is known as the “nucleus. In an atom, the total number of negatively- charged electrons circling around the nucleus exactly equals the number of extra positive charges hy the nucleus.
The positive charges are called “protons. Atoms of different elements contain different numbers of neutrons within the nucleus, but the number of electrons spinning about the nucleus always equals the number of free protons within the nucleus. Electrons in the outer orbits of an atom are attracted vqlkenburgh the nucleus by less force than electrons electricitg orbits are near the nucleus.
These outer electrons are called “free” electrons and may be easily forced from their orbits, while electrons in the inner orbits are called “bound” electrons since they cannot be forced out of their orbits easily. It is the motion of the free electrons that makes up basif electric current.
Basic Electricity, vol. 2
Then you will be ready to study where elec- tricity comes from. ATOM — The smallest physical particle into which an element can be divided. Before getting into the study of these sources, you will first find out about electric charges. If you could somehow force an electron out of its vxlkenburgh, then the electron’s action would bh what is known as electricity.
Electrons which are forced out of their orbits in some way will leave a lack of electrons in the material which they leave and will cause an ex- cess of electrons to exist at the point where they come to rest. This ex- cess of electrons in one material is called a “negative” charge while the lack of electrons in the other material is called a “positive” charge.
When these charges exist you have what is called “static” electricity. To cause either a “positive” or “negative” charge, the electron must eoectricity moved while the vah charges in the nucleus do not move. Any material which has a “positive charge” will have its normal number of positive charges in the nucleus but will have electrons missing or lack- ing. However, a material which is negatively charged actually has an excess of electrons. You are now ready to find out how friction can produce this excess or lack of electrons to cause static electricity.
The main source of static electricity which you will use is friction. If you should rub two different materials together, electrons eelectricity be forced out of their orbits in one material and captured in the other.
The material which captures electrons would then have a negative charge and the ma- terial which loses electrons would have a positive charge. When two materials rub together, due to friction contact, some electron orbits of the materials cross each other and one material may give up electrons to the other. If this happens, static charges are built up in the two materials, and friction has thus been a source of electricity.
The charge which you might cause to exist could be either positive or negative depending on which material gives up electrons more freely. Some materials which easily build up static electricity are glass, amber, hard rubber, waxes, flannel, silk, rayon and nylon. When hard rubber is rubbed with fur, the fur loses electrons to the rod— the rod becomes neg- atively charged and the fur positively charged.
When glass is rubbed with silk, the glass rod loses electrons — the rod becomes positively charged and the silk negatively charged.
You will find out that a static charge may transfer from one material to another without friction, but the original source of these static charges is friction. For instance, if you place a positively charged ball near one which is charged negatively, the balls will attract each other. If the charges are great enough and the balls are light and free to move, they will come into contact. Whether they are free to move or not, a force of attraction always exists between unlike charges.
This attraction takes place because the excess electrons of a negative charge are trying to find a place where extra electrons are needed. If you bring two materials of opposite charges together, the excess electrons of the negative charge will transfer to the material having a lack of electrons. This transfer or crossing over of electrons from a negative to a positive charge is called “discharge. If an object has a static charge, it will in- fluence all other nearby objects.
This influence may be exerted through contact or induction. Positive charges mean a lack of electrons and always attract electrons, while negative charges mean an excess of electrons and always repel electrons.
If you should touch a positively charged vab to an uncharged metal bar, it will attract electrons in the bar to the point of contact. Some of these electrons will leave the bar and enter the rod, causing the bar to become positively charged and decreasing the positive charge of the rod.
As the negatively charged rod valkenvurgh brought near the uncharged bar, electrons in that portion of the bar nearest the rod would be repelled toward the side opposite the rod.
Basic electricity: Part 5: Nooger & Neville Inc Van Valkenburgh: : Books
The portion of the bar near the rod will then be charged positively and the opposite side will be charged negatively. As the rod is touched to the bar, some of the excess electrons in the negatively charged rod will flow into the bar to neutralize the positive charge in that portion of the bar but the opposite side of the bar retains its negative charge.
When the rod is lifted away from the bar, the negative charge remains in the bar and the rod is still negatively charged but has very few excess electrons. When a charged object touches an uncharged object, it loses some of its vab to the uncharged object until each has the same amount of charge. Some of the charge on the rod is transferred and the bar be- comes charged. Suppose that instead of touching the bar leectricity the rod, you only bring the positively charged rod near to the bar. In that case, elec- trons in the bar would be attracted to the point nearest the rod, causing a negative charge at that point.
The opposite side of the bar would again lack electrons and be charged positive. Three charges would then exist, the positive charge in the rod, the negative charge in the bar at the point nearest the rod and a positive charge in the bar on the side opposite the rod.
By allowing electrons from an outside source your finger, for in- stance to enter the positive end of the bar, you can give the bar a nega- tive charge. Electrons in that portion of the rod will be repelled and will move to the opposite end of the bar.
The original negative charge of the rod then causes two additional charges, one positive and one negative, in the bar. Removing the rod will leave the bar uncharged since the excess electrons in the negatively charged end will flow back to neutralize the bar.
How- ever, vallenburgh before the rod is moved a path is provided for the electrons in the negatively charged portion of the bar to flow out of the bar, the electrickty bar will be positively charged when the rod is removed. Now you should see how the excess or lack of electrons in the charged body may be neutralized, or discharged.
By connecting a wire from one material to the other, you would provide a path for the electrons of the negative charge to cross over to the positive charge, and the charges would thereby neutralize.
Instead of connecting the materials with a wire, you might touch them together contact and again the bqsic would disappear. If you use materials with strong charges, the electrons may jump from the negative charge to the positive charge before the two materials are actually in contact.
In that caseyou would actually see the discharge in the form of an arc. With very strong charges, static electricity can dis- charge across large gaps, causing arcs many feet in length. Lightning is an example of the discharge of static electricity resulting from the accumulation of a static charge in a cloud as it moves through the air. Natural static charges are built up wherever friction occurs be- tween the air molecules, such as with moving clouds or high winds, and you will find that these charges are greatest in a very dry climate, or elsewhere when the humidity is low.
You have also seen how static charges can be transferred by contact or in- duction, and you have learned about some of the useful applications of static electricity. Before going on to learn about the other basic sources of electricity, you should review those facts which you have already learned.